Principles of Lasers

Principles of Laser

(7th semester course- 3 hours teaching weekly) 

Teaching jointly with Lecturer M. Fakis and Prof. V. Giannetas (for the laboratory part) 


Course Outline:

  • Introductory and basic concepts: Spontaneous and stimulated emission - Population Inversion, Broadening of Spectral Lines, Laser Gain Coefficient, Transitions and Energy Levels - Saturation.
  • Two, three and four level systems - Gain saturation: Laser operation.
  • Conditions of laser operation, output power, switching of Q factor and giga-pulses, gain coefficient switching, Amplified Stimulated Emission (ASE)
  • Optical Resonators: Fabry-Perrot Resonator, Longitudinal and transverse modes in optical resonators, optical resonators stability, tuning of the oscillation modes.
  • Single mode operation - Coherence. Spectral laser resonance and multimode oscillation. Fabry Perot Etalon, Longitudinal Mode Operation. Spatial and temporal coherence.
  • Mode Locking. Theoretical analysis, Mode locking techniques, Optical Kerr Effect, self-phase modulation (SPM).
  • Pulse Compression. Group velocity dispersion (GVD), Pulse compression via SPM and GVD interaction, Solitons, Ultrashort pulses measurement techniques, Ultrashort pulses amplification.
  • Gas and Liquid Lasers. Fine operation requirements, Gas state Lasers, Liquid state lasers, Dye Lasers.
  • Lasers on solids.
  • Semiconductor Lasers, Solid State Lasers, Fiber Optic Lasers.

 

Labortory 

(with participation of Prof. V. Giannetas)

  • Laser He-Ne
  • Coupling of a He - Ne laser into an optical fiber.
  • Optical Resonator Modeling.
  • Fourier Optics - Spatial filters.

Bibliography:

  • “Lasers-Optoelectronics”, S. Couris.
  • “Optics and Photonics: An Introduction”, F. Graham Smith, T. A. King, D. Wilkins, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
  • “Lasers: Principles and Applications”, J. Wilson, J.F.B. Hawkes, Prentice Hall.
  • “Physics of Optoelectronics”, Michael A. Parker, Taylor & Francis Group, 2005.

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